Why doors should be serviced
DORMA is here to help you to provide a safe building environment. Doors are an important element of the building, and if they are not regularly checked or maintained they can become dangerous. Legislation places a duty of care on all building owners and occupiers to ensure that the doors and ancillary equipment on their buildings are regularly maintained by a competent organisation or person.
There are 3 key pieces of legislation affecting the provision and maintenance of doors which you need to be aware of. We can provide expert advice on meeting your Accessibility, Fire and general Health & Safety obligations.
Equality Act 2010
Formerly known as the Disability Discrimination Act, this legislation places a duty of care upon all service providers to remove the physical barriers that prevent people with disabilities from accessing a service. It requires that you make reasonable adjustments to your premises where a physical feature makes it impossible or unreasonably difficult for any person to make use of any services you offer to the public.
At DORMA we are experts in how to meet these requirements as specified in BS8300 “Design of buildings and their approaches to meet the needs of disabled people” and the Building Regulations (Approved Document M - “Access to and use of buildings“). We can help make your premises accessible for all.
Fire Safety Order
Under the Fire Safety Order, the “responsible person” for the building MUST complete their own risk assessment for the fire safety of the building and put in place any measures resulting from the risk assessment. Failure to do so could result in a fine or imprisonment (or both) and could invalidate any building insurance. An important part of your risk assessment is to ensure that all fire resisting doors and emergency escape doors meet the required standards. We cannot do your risk assessment for you but we can ensure that all your fire doors and escape doors are well maintained and in good working order.
Health, Safety and Welfare Regulations
Under the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992, employers have a general duty of care to ensure, as far as is reasonably practicable, the health, safety and welfare of employees under section 2, and for building users, under section 4 of the Health and Safety at Work Act 1974.
You must ensure your premises are safe by maintaining your doors on a regular basis to the relevant Standards and keep a record of such maintenance. If the doors malfunction and cause injury you may be liable.
Automatic doors are classified as machines under the European Machinery Directive, and are also regulated by BS EN 16005:2012 - Power operated pedestrian doorsets, which states that automatic doorsets including their protective devices and safety systems shall be regularly maintained according to the manufacturer’s specification and the recommended frequency for checking the correct operation of safety function and devices is, at least, once a year.
EN 16005:2012 (which superseded BS7036 in 2013) requires that to ensure the safe operation, long term reliability and working efficiency of a power operator pedestrian doorset (including protective devices and safety systems) they must be regularly maintained according to the manufacturer's specification. They will also detail frequency of maintenance to be carried out.
The standard recommended frequency for servicing automatic doors is at least once a year, dependent upon usage, traffic etc. All DORMA Service contract plans, frequency of visit etc are tailored to suit your needs, usage and the requirements for your equipment.
Under EN 16005, regular risk assessment and inspection is also required by the owner/occupier. It is the owners responsibility to ensure that their Automatic Door equipment is regularly maintained according to the manufacturer's specification. The owner is also responsible for ensuring that any maintenance operation is recorded in the equipment Log book.
The routine maintenance instructions shall give simple general instructions highlighting the maintenance that can be undertaken by the owner without any specific competence, and highlighting all other maintenance to be carried out by professionals.
All DORMA technicians are authorised under the ADSA (Automatic Door Suppliers Association) scheme and carry an industry ID card to show they have successfully completed the Automatic Door Suppliers Association competency exam.
Unmaintained manual doors can stick, become noisy, slam shut, operate too slowly or fail to close fully. If this happens to an ordinary door, it is unsafe or at best annoying, on a fire door it is potentially deadly.
Door closers are fitted to doors not just for fire safety reasons but also for reasons such as privacy, noise reduction and security. They require regular checks to ensure they are closing correctly in order to meet Fire Safety legislation requirements whilst also providing ease of access for all building users.
Accessibility & Manual Doors
The Equality Act places a duty of care upon service providers to remove the physical barriers that prevent people from accessing a service. The specific performance of door closers in meeting this requirement is detailed within the Building Regulations which state that: “…a doorset must have an opening force of below 30N between 0º and 30º degrees and below 22.5N between 30º and 60º degrees…”.
Not all door closers available in the market can help doorsets meet the criteria; DORMA door closers carry third party test evidence to demonstrate their ability to produce low opening forces and help doorsets meet the requirements of BS8300 and the building regulations.Without regular maintenance of all door fittings the resistances to opening and closing can increase to an extent that the ability of people to pass through the door may be affected. The opening force should therefore be checked at regular intervals.
Internal fire doors are an integral part of the fire resistance of the building. They are subject to wear and tear through constant opening and closing and may deteriorate faster than other fire resisting elements of the building if not maintained.
Periodic inspection should be carried out by the responsible person (owner or building occupier) to check the integrity of doors, their seals and ironmongery.
The scope and frequency of this check is dependant on several factors such as the type and frequency of use and the operating conditions of the products involved.
Lack of maintenance, abuse and high frequency of use may degrade the door and can have serious implications on door performance. To prevent this manual fire doors should be examined every 6 months in accordance with BS8214 “Code of practice for fire door assemblies” with particular attention being paid to panic and emergency exit bars, hinges and pivots and door closers.
As well as legislation for maintaining fire doors each aspect of the fire door and its ironmongery is controlled by its own relevant British Standard. For instance, BS EN1154 “Controlled door closing devices” states that door closers with a power size of at least EN3 must be fitted to fire doors in order that it can properly close the fire/ smoke door from any angle, overcoming the resistance of any seals and latches fitted. Closer power size also needs to increase as the door width increases (outlined in BS EN 1154).
Under BS EN1125 and BS EN179, Emergency exit hardware, panic bars, push pads, latches and bolts require inspection at least once a month by the occupier, and servicing at 6 monthly intervals by a qualified engineer to ensure they operate reliably in the event of an emergency, and keep the building secure day-to-day.
In addition to your legal obligations for maintaining fire doors, Fire doors are also subject to the maximum permissible manual door opening forces under the Equality Act legislation and associated building regulations, such as BS8300 and Approved Document M, and should be have their opening forces regularly checked to ensure they comply. This ensures that the opening force of the fire door remains low enough for people with disabilities to have independent access. The Building Regulations which state that: “…a doorset must have an opening force of below 30N between 0º and 30º degrees and below 22.5N between 30º and 60º degrees…”.If the opening force exceeds this due to the type of door leaf, or the forces required to keep it shut, then an electronic hold-open or free swing solution should be used, or an automatic door should be considered. To ensure that the opening force of manual doors remains below this legal limit, the door should be checked at regular intervals to ensure correct adjustment of the door closer at both angles of opening. The opening force is checked using a Newton meter, plunger-type measuring device.
Fire Safety Order 2005
With the introduction of the FSO, the Fire Certificate was abolished, leaving the risk assessment and proof of compliance in the hands of the building owner or other reasonable person. Instead of inspecting premises and issuing certificates, the Fire Service now performs spot checks to ensure compliance with the regulations.Failure to comply could result in a fine or imprisonment (or both) and would invalidate any building insurance. The risk assessment includes checking all fire doors and emergency exit doors to see if they meet the requirements of the new FSO. Further details are available at www.communities.gov.uk/fire. DORMA can assist you in carrying out the risk assessment.
The building owner/occupier is responsible for the correct operation and maintenance of any industrial doors, grilles and roller shutters. Often subject to punishing wear and tear, industrial doors cause a great deal of disruption and inconvenience when not working properly. A damaged door can quickly result in a loss of revenue. If doors stick this can also pose a serious health and safety hazard to staff, as well as threaten to stop or hold-up incoming and outgoing deliveries.
Current Health & Safety legislation such as the Provision and Use of Work Equipment Regulations Act requires that trained personnel properly maintain industrial doors at suitable levels since all work equipment should be maintained in an efficient state, working order and good repair. The law also requires that a proper maintenance log is kept.
To ensure the safe working and security of all types of industrial doors it is recommended that maintenance is carried out at six monthly intervals, but for heavy usage this would be more frequent.